Sosyal Bilimler, pozitif bilimlere göre teorilerin test edilmesinin zor olduğu bir alandır. Buna rağmen yakın zamanda teknolojik gelişim başta olmak üzere disiplinler arası artan sayıda çalışma, sosyal bilimlerde ortaya atılan teorileri laboratuvar, alan deneyi ve doğal deneyler ile sınamaya başladı. Bu sayfada Massachusetts Institute of Technology yani bilinen adıyla M.I.T. üniversitesinin açık kaynak olarak paylaştığı iktisatta alan deneyleri ile ilgili lisans dersi okuma listesinde yer alan konular ve konularda işlenen makalelere değineceğim.
Konu Başlıkları şunlar:
- Irk Ayrımcılığı (Racial Discrimination)
Emily ve Greg, Lakisha ve Jamal’dan daha mı istihdam edilebilir? İstihdam Piyasasında Ayrımcılık Üzerine bir Alan Deneyi (Bertrand, Marianne, and Sendhil Mullainathan. “Are Emily and Greg More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination.” American Economic Review 94, no. 4 (2004): 991-1013.)
- Kamu Sağlığı ve İkna (Public Health and Persuasion)
- Teşvikler (Incentives)
- Piyasa İçinde Cinsiyet Farklılıkları (Gender Differences in Economic Environments)
- İç güdüsel motivasyon ve Adalet (Intrinsic Motivation and Fairness)
- Eğitimin Kalitesi (Educational Quality)
- Öğrenme Süreci ve Sosyal Etkiler (Learning and Social Effects)
- Konutlandırma Deneyleri (Housing Experiments)
- Oy verme davranışları ve Politik Ekonomi (Voting Behavior and Political Economy)
- Jüri / Müdafa süreçleri (Jury/Advocacy)
Okuma listesi aşağıda verilmiştir. Bu liste M.I.T. opencourse sayfasından alındı. Okuma listesi, ders materyallerini indirmek isteyenler linki tıklayabilir.
|1||Racial Discrimination||David Autor||Methodological Topic: Causal Inference
Bertrand, Marianne, and Sendhil Mullainathan. “Are Emily and Greg More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination.” American Economic Review 94, no. 4 (2004): 991-1013.
Goldin, Claudia, and Cecilia Rouse. “Orchestrating Impartiality: The Impact of “Blind” Auditions on Female Musicians.” American Economic Review 90, no. 4 (2000): 715-741.
Fershtman, Chaim, and Uri Gneezy. “Discrimination in a Segmented Society: An Experimental Approach.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 116, no. 1 (2001): 351-377.
Holland, Paul W. “Statistics and Causal Inference.” Journal of the American Statistical Association 81, no. 396 (1986): 945-960.
Mobius, Markus M., and Tanya S. Rosenblatt. “Why Beauty Matters.” American Economic Review 96 (2006 forthcoming). (PDF)#
Steele, Claude. “A Threat in the Air: How Stereotypes Shape the Intellectual Identities and Performance of Women and African Americans.” American Psychologist 52, no. 6 (1997): 613-629.
Steele, Claude, and Joshua Aronson. “Stereotype Threat and the Intellectual Test Performance of African Americans.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69, no. 5 (1995): 797-811.
List, John. A. “The Nature and Extent of Discrimination in the Marketplace: Evidence from the Field.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 119, no. 1 (2004): 49-89.
|2||Public Health and Persuasion||Esther Duflo||Methodological Topic: Threats to Validity (Internal Threats)
Dupas, Pascaline. “Relative Risks and the Market for Sex: Teenagers, Sugar Daddies and HIV in Kenya.” Job Market Paper, Paris School of Economics, 2006.
Thorntorn, Rebecca. “The Demand for and Impact of Learning HIV Status: Evidence from a Field Experiment.” Job Market Paper, Harvard University, 2006.
Cialdini, Robert. Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion. New York, NY: Collins, 1998. ISBN: 0688128165.
Rothman, A. J., and P. Salovey. “Shaping perceptions to motivate healthy behavior: The role of message framing.” Psychological Bulletin 121, no. 1 (1997): 3-19.
|3||Incentives, Reciprocity and Cooperation||David Autor||Methodological Topics: Sample Size, Power Calculations
Fehr, Ernst, and Simon Gächter. “Do Incentive Contracts Undermine Voluntary Cooperation?” IEER Working Paper, no. 34 (April 2002).
Fehr, Ernst, and Armin Falk. “Psychological Foundations of Incentives.” European Economic Review46, nos. 4-5 (2002): 687-724.
Fehr, Ernst, and Simon Gächter. “Cooperation and Punishment in Public Goods Experiments.” American Economic Review 90, no. 4 (September 2000): 980-994.
Fehr, Ernst, and Bettina Rockenbach. “Detrimental Effects of Sanctions on Human Altruism.” Nature422, (March 13, 2003): 137-140.
Gneezy, Uri, and Aldo Rustichini. “A Fine is a Price.” Journal of Legal Studies 29, no. 1 (2000): 1-17.
Glewwe, Paul, Nauman Ilias, and Michael Kremer. “Teacher Incentives.” NBER Working Paper, no. 9671 (2003).
|4||Gender Differences in Economic Environments: Leadership, Competition, Politics||Esther Duflo||Methodological Topics: Human Subjects
Chattopadhyay, Raghabendra, and Esther Duflo. “Women as Policy Makers: Evidence from a Randomized Policy Experiment in India.” Econometrica 72, no. 5 (2004): 1409-1443.
Duflo, Esther, and Petia Topalova. “Unappreciated Service: Performance, Perceptions, and Women Leaders in India.” Faculty working paper, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Economics (2004).
Eagly, Alice, and Steven Karau. “Role Congruity Theory of Prejudice Toward Female Leaders.” Psychological Review 109, no. 3 (2002): 573-598.
Rudman, Laurie A., and Stephen E. Kilianski. “Implicit and explicit attitudes toward female authority.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 26, no. 11 (2000): 1315-1328.
Rudman, Laurie A. “Self-Promotion as a Risk Factor for Women: The Costs and Benefits of Counterstereotypical Impression Management.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74, no. 3 (1998): 629-645.
Rudman, Laurie A., and Peter Glick. “Feminized management and backlash toward agentic women: The hidden costs to women of a kinder, gentler image of middle managers.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 77, no. 5 (1999): 1004-1110.
———. “Prescriptive gender stereotype and backlash towards agentic women.” Journal of Social Issues 54, no. 4 (2001): 743-762.
Gneezy, Uri, Muriel Niederle, and Aldo Rustichini. “Performance in Competitive Environments: Gender Differences.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 188, no. 3 (2003): 1049-1074.
Bowles, and Hannah Riley. “It Depends Who Is Asking and Who You Ask: Social Incentives for Sex Differences in the Propensity to Initiate Negotiation.” KSG Faculty Research Working Paper Series RWP05-045 (2005).
Bowles, Hannah Riley, Linda Babock, and Lei Lai. “What Is There to Lose from Pursuing High Aspirations in Competitive Negotiation?” KSG Working Paper (2005).
|5||Intrinsic Motivation and Fairness||David Autor||Methodological Topic: External Validity
Fehr, Ernst, Urs Fischbacher, and Elena Tougareva. “Do High Stakes and Competition Undermine Fairness? Evidence from Russia.” University of Zurich Institute for Empirical Research in Economics Working Paper, no. 120 (July 2002).
Harrison, Glenn W., and John A. List. “Field Experiments.” Journal of Economic Literature 42, no. 4 (December 2004): 1009-1055.
Kahneman, Daniel, Jack L. Knetsch, and Richard Thaler. “Fairness as a Constraint on Profit Seeking: Entitlements in the Market.” American Economic Review 76, no. 4 (1986): 728-741.
Lazear, Edward P., Ulrike Malmendier, and Roberto A. Weber. “Sorting in Experiments with Application to Social Preferences.” Mimeograph, Stanford University, January 2006.
List, John A. “The Behavioralist Meets the Market: Measuring Social Preferences and Reputation Effects in Actual Transactions.” NBER Working Paper, no. 11616 (September 2005).
———. “Neoclassical Theory versus Prospect Theory: Evidence from the Marketplace.” Econometrica 72, no. 2 (2004): 615-625.
|6||Improving Educational Quality||Esther Duflo||Methodological Topics: Clustering and Standard Errors
Kremer, Michael. “Randomized Evaluations of Educational Programs in Developing Countries: Some Lessons.” American Economic Review 93, no. 2 (2003): 102-106.
Glewwe, Paul, and Michael Kremer: “Schools, Teachers, and Education Outcomes in Developing Countries.” Handbook on the Economics of Education. Elsevier, forthcoming.
Banerjee, Abhijit, Shawn Cole, Esther Duflo, and Leigh Linden. “Remedying Education: Evidence from Two Randomized Experiments in India.” Mimeograph, MIT (2004).
Angrist, Josh, Eric Bettinger, Erik Bloom, Elizabeth King, and Michael Kremer. “Vouchers for Private Schooling in Colombia: Evidence from a Randomized Natural Experiment.” American Economic Review 92, no. 5 (2002): 1535-1558.
Angrist, Josh, Eric Bettinger, and Michael Kremer. “Long-Term Consequences of Secondary School Vouchers: Evidence from Administrative Records in Colombia.” American Economic Review 96, no. 3 (June 2006): 847-862.
Angrist, J., and V. Lavy. “The Effect of High School Matriculation Awards: Evidence from Randomized Trials.” NBER Working Paper, no. 9389 (2002).
Kremer, Michael, Edward Miguel, and Rebecca Thornton. “Incentives to Learn.” Mimeograph, Harvard, 2004.
|7||Monitoring, Deception and Corruption||David Autor||Methodological Topic: Randomization as an Instrumental Variable
Duflo, Esther, and Rema Hanna. “Monitoring Works: Getting Teachers to Come to School.” NBER Working Paper, no. 11880 (2005).
Gneezy, Uri. “Deception: The Role of Consequences.” American Economic Review95, no. 1 (2005): 385-394.
Jacob, Brian A., and Steven D. Levitt. “Rotten Apples: An Investigation of the Prevalence and Predictors of Teacher Cheating.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 118, no. 3 (2003): 843-877.
———. “Catching Cheating Teachers: The Results of an Unusual Experiment in Implementing Theory.” In Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs 2003. Edited by William G. Gale and Janet Rothenberg Pack. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2003. ISBN: 0815712774.
Nagin, Daniel, James Rebitzer, Seth Sanders, and Lowell Taylor. “Monitoring, Motivation, and Management: The Determinants of Opportunistic Behavior in a Field Experiment.” American Economic Review 92, no. 4 (2002): 850-873.
Olken, Benjamin. “Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia.” NBER Working Paper, no. 11753 (2005).
|8||Learning and Social Effects||Esther Duflo||Methodological Topic: Statistical Inference with Multiple Outcomes
Karlan, Dean. “Using Experimental Economics to Measure Social Capital and Predict Financial Decisions.” American Economic Review 95, no. 5 (2005): 1688-1699.
Miguel, Edward, and Michael Kremer. “Networks, Social Learning, and Technology Adoption: The Case of Deworming Drugs in Kenya.” Mimeograph, University of California at Berkeley (2004).
Duflo, Esther, Michael Kremer, and Jonathan Robison. “Understanding Technology Adoption: Fertilizer in Western Kenya. Preliminary Results from Field Experiments.” Mimeograph, MIT (2005).
Duflo, Esther, and Emmanuel Saez. “The Role of Information and Social Interactions in Retirement Plan Decisions: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 118, no. 3 (2003): 815-842.
Boisjoly, Johanne, Greg J. Duncan, Michael Kremer, Dan M. Levy, and Jacque Eccles. “Empathy or Antipathy? The impact of Diversity.” Mimeograph, Harvard (2004).
|9||Commitment, Self-control and Savings||Esther Duflo||Della Vigna, Stefano, and Ulrike Malmendier. “Paying Not to Go to the Gym.” American Economic Review (2006): forthcoming.
Duflo, Esther, William Gale, Jeffrey Liebman, Peter Orszag, and Emmanuel Saez. “Saving Incentives for Low- and Middle-Income Families: Evidence from a Field Experiment with H and R Block.” NBER Working Paper, no. 11680 (2005). (See also The Retirement Security Project Policy Brief No. 2005-5.)
Madrian, Brigitte, and Dennis Shea. “The Power of Suggestion: Inertia in 401(k) Participation and Savings Behavior.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 116, no. 4 (2001): 1149-1187.
Thaler, Richard, and Shlomo Benartzi. “Save More Tomorrow™: Using Behavioral Economics to Increase Employee Saving.” Journal of Political Economy 112, no. 1 (2004): 164-187.
Ashraf, Nava, Dean S. Karlan, and Wesley Yin. “Tying Odysseus to the Mast: Evidence from a Commitment Savings Product in the Philippines.” Quarterly Journal of Economics (2006). (forthcoming)
Ashraf, Nava. “Spousal Control and Intra-Household Decision Making: An Experimental Study in the Philippines.” Mimeograph, Harvard (2005).
Ariely, Dan and Klaus Wertenbroch. “Procrastination, Deadlines, and Performance: Self-Control by Precommitment.” Psychological Science (May 13, 2002): 219-224.
|10||Housing Experiments and Neighborhood Effects||David Autor||Rosenbaum, James E. “Black Pioneers-Do Their Moves to the Suburbs Increase Economic Opportunity for Mothers and Children?” Housing Policy Debate 2, no. 4 (1991): 1179-1213.
Katz, Lawrence, Jeffrey Kling, and Jeffrey Liebman. “Experimental Analysis of Neighborhood Effects.” NBER Working Paper, no. 11577 (August 2005).
———. “Moving To Opportunity In Boston: Early Results of a Randomized Mobility Experiment.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 116, no. 2 (2001): 607-654.
Kling, Jeffrey R. Jens Ludwig, and Lawrence Katz. “Neighborhood Effects on Crime for Female and Male Youth: Evidence from a Randomized Housing Voucher Experiment.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 120, no. 1 (February, 2005): 87-130.
Jacob, Brian A. “Public Housing, Housing Vouchers, and Student Achievement: Evidence from Public Housing Demolitions in Chicago.” American Economic Review 94, no. 1 (2004): 233-258.
Oreopoulos, Philip. “The Long-run Consequences of Growing Up in a Poor Neighborhood.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 118, no. 4 (2003): 1533-1575.
|11||Voting||Esther Duflo||Green, Donald, and Alan Gerber. Get Out the Vote: How to Increase the Voter Turnout. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, March 2004. ISBN: 0815732694.
Gerber, Alan S., and Donald P. Green. “The Effects of Canvassing, Telephone Calls, and Direct Mail on Voter Turnout: A Field Experiment.” American Political Science Review 94, no. 3 (2000): 653-663.
Greenwald, Anthony G., Catherine G. Carnot, and Rebecca Beach. “Increasing voting behavior by asking people if they expect to vote.” Journal of Applied Psychology 72, no. 2 (1987): 315-318.
Wantchekon, Leonard. “Clientelism and Voting Behavior: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Benin.” World Politics 55, no. 3 (2003): 399-422.
|12||Juries, Advocacy and Bias||David Autor||Babcock, L., and G. Loewenstein. “Explaining bargaining impasse: The role of self serving biases.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 11 (1997): 109-126.
Babcock, L., G. Loewenstein, and S. Issacharoff. “Creating convergence: Debiasing biased litigants.” Law and Social Inquiry 22 (1997): 401-413.
Babcock, L., X. Wang, and G. Loewenstein. “Choosing the Wrong Pond: Social Comparisons in Negotiations that Reflect a Self-Serving Bias.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 111, no. 1 (February, 1996): 1-19.
Brehm, Kassin, and Fein. Social Psychology.4th ed. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1999, pp. 428-462. ISBN: 0130288640.
Donohue, John J., III, and Steven D. Levitt. “The Impact of Race on Policing and Arrests.” Journal of Law and Economics 44, no. 2 (2001): 367-94.
Kassin, Saul M., Goldstein, Christine C., and Kenneth Savitsky “Behavioral confirmation in the interrogation room: On the dangers of presuming guilt.” Law and Human Behavior 27, no. 2 (April, 2003): 187-203.
Narby, Douglas J., Cutler, Brian L., Penrod, and Steven D. “The effects of witness, target, and situational factors on eyewitness identifications.” In Psychological Issues in Eyewitness Identification. Edited by Sporer, Siegfried Ludwig, Malpass, and Roy S. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1996, pp. 23-52. ISBN: 0805811982.
Plus: A brief multimedia presentation.